Plant-based diets, defined in terms of low frequency of animal food consumption, have been increasingly recommended for their health benefits. Numerous studies have found plant-based diets, especially when rich in high quality plant foods such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, to be associated with lower risk of cardiovascular outcomes and intermediate risk factors. This review summarizes the current evidence base examining the associations of plant-based diets with cardiovascular endpoints, and discusses the potential biological mechanisms underlying their health effects, practical recommendations and applications of this research, and directions for future research. Healthful plant-based diets should be recommended as an environmentally sustainable dietary option for improved cardiovascular health. The potentially beneficial role of plant-based diets in cardiovascular health has been increasingly recognized, with a vast and accumulating evidence-base documenting their health effects 1, 2. Complementary findings from studies of individual plant and animal foods as well as their constituent nutrients lend further support to the potential cardio-protective effects of plant-based diets. Most recently, based on a comprehensive review of these studies, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans — 3 included a healthy vegetarian-style dietary pattern in its recommendations of dietary patterns that can be adopted for improved health. In the present review, we will provide an overview of the cardiovascular benefits associated with plant-based diets, while discussing the biological pathways potentially involved, as well as clinical applications and public health implications of these findings.
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